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Friends of the Earth's Climate & Environment Policy Platform

The state election on 26 November, 2022, is an opportunity for all parties to demonstrate how they will manage the transition in a way that will lead to economic opportunities, job creation, and create a pathway for Victoria to contribute towards global efforts to achieve a safe climate and avoid catastrophic climate impacts. 

Victoria is facing a decade of transition. The state has committed to halve its greenhouse gas emissions and deliver 50 percent of its electricity from renewable energy sources by 2030 to tackle the global climate crisis. While some of the foundation stones for a just transition are in place, Friends of the Earth present the following policy ideas to secure a bright future for the state.

The rollout of solar, wind, and energy storage technology continues to create jobs and bring new, cheap power to the grid while disrupting fossil fuel incumbents. Aging coal-burning power stations are becoming increasingly uncompetitive and unreliable—their owners are looking for pathways to closure. 

The greenhouse gas footprint of the transport sectorwhich is now the state’s second largest and fastest growing source of emissionswill come to equal that of the electricity system. Public Transport patronage will rebound once the pandemic subsides and electric vehicles will disrupt the status quo. 

The logging of native forests will cease by the end of the decade, with a major phase down in 2024an outcome that will boost the state’s capacity to draw carbon emissions out of the atmosphere while providing a lifeline for threatened species and vulnerable ecosystems. 

Will these transitions be managed and deliver good outcomes for community, environment, and climate, or will they be unmanaged and lead to unjust outcomes?

State elections provide a moment for political parties to present ideas for how to tackle the big challenges facing Victoria. They are an opportunity to steer the state towards a better future.

Polling consistently shows that voters across all major parties want to see greater leadership on climate and environment. This sentiment comes as no surprise given that events such as the Black Summer bushfires of 2019/20 have shown that climate impacts are already impacting local landscapes, communities, and economies. This sentiment will deepen as climate impacts become more frequent in coming years.

Government responses to the climate and biodiversity crises do not occur in a vacuum. The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the state, national, and global economies. Clean technologies continue to come down the cost curve. Major trading partners the United States and United Kingdom have increased their commitments to tackle climate change. They are using ambitious climate and energy targets to roll out clean technologies, create jobs, revive manufacturing, and create new industries. 

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In response to intensifying climate impacts, the United States and United Kingdom have increased their commitments to cut emissions this decade and are setting aggressive targets to roll out solar power, offshore wind, energy storage, and electric vehicles.

Will Victoria increase its commitment and capture the economic benefits that stem from tackling the climate crisis?

Friends of the Earth call for all political parties to publicly commit to:

  • The Victorian Climate Change Act (2017)the framework legislation guiding our state’s response to climate change.
  • Swift delivery of the state’s interim Emissions Reduction Targets of 28-33 percent by 2025 and 45-50 percent by 2030.
  • Increase Victoria’s 2030 Emissions Reduction Target and ensure future interim targets are aligned with the best available science and deliver the cuts needed to limit global warming to 1.5°C.
  • Match the United States-European Union’s pledge to reduce methane emissions by 30 percent (below 2020 levels) this decade. 
  • Release a Climate Impact Statement with the budget papers to outline expenditure on direct mitigation (i.e: renewable energy); indirect mitigation (i.e: public transport infrastructure); adaptation (i.e: installing sea walls/groynes); and disaster response (i.e: firefighting and recovery). The impact statement would include a ‘social cost of carbon’ to estimate the damages caused by each tonne of greenhouse gas in dollar terms (a tool now used in the United States and European Union). This analysis will assist the government in meeting its commitment to the Climate Change Act 2017. It will bring greater transparency to climate-related expenditure and allow departments, key stakeholders, and the community to track trends over time.
  • Establish a $100 million Victorian Climate Change Action Fund (VCCAF) to retrofit public libraries, schools, community centres, neighbourhood houses, and sporting clubs to become Climate Emergency Refuge Centres in times of crisis. This would involve installing rooftop solar, battery storage, air-conditioners, appropriate air filtration (in light of the pandemic) and other energy efficient equipment at those sites. Communities most at risk from bushfires and heat waves would be prioritised in the rollout.
  • Undertake a special report on climate impacts on Victoria’s coastline. This investigation would identify the infrastructure and ecosystems at risk of damage in the short, medium, and long term. This study would also present decadal sea level rise forecasts (from 2030 out to 2100) and provide a body of research that can be used to educate the public and inform policymakers.
  • A commitment to monitor sites vulnerable to rising sea levels and intensifying storm surges and establish a photographic record of coastal change for researchers, policymakers, advocates, and the community.


The transport sector is Victoria's second largest and fastest growing source of greenhouse emissions in Victoria. Without strong policy support for public transport, active transport, and electric buses (and other electric modes of transport), the sector’s contribution to climate change will match that of the electricity sector this decade.

Investment in the Melbourne Metro 1 tunnel, level-crossing removal program, and new train and tram rolling stock will put downward pressure on emissions growth, yet there are key barriers preventing the community from prioritising zero- and low-carbon transport options. Melbourne’s bus network is fragmented, infrequent, and relies on polluting diesel vehicles, and just 15 percent of the tram network is accessible for people with disabilities.

Friends of the Earth call for all political parties to commit to:

  • Delivering Better Buses for Victoria by:
    • Implementing 10-minute bus services in the high-growth local government areas of Wyndham, Brimbank, and Hobson’s Bay by 2025, with the aim of a statewide roll out by 2030.
    • Transition the bus fleet to electric vehicles in high-growth local government areas in Wyndham, Brimbank, and Hobson’s Bay by 2025, with a statewide transition by 2030.
    • Procure Victorian-made electric buses to ensure our state captures the jobs and economic benefits of the roll out. As many Australian-made vehicles should be procured as possible in this initiative.
    • Upgrade the state’s 25 worst bus connections at train stations, tram stops, and other high-frequency locations (e.g: health and education precincts) by 2025. (Friends of the Earth have undertaken a community surveying process to identify the 25-worst connection points).

  • Improve Accessibility and Boost Capacity by:
    • Implementing the Public Transport Accessibility Strategy to provide universal access to public transport for people with disabilities within the next term of government.
    • Investing in a business case for the Melbourne Metro 2 tunnel to link the Werribee and Mernda lines, provide access to the Fisherman’s Bend Precinct, and boost the capacity of the rail network.
    • Commencing construction of the Melbourne Metro 2 tunnel once the Melbourne Metro 1 tunnel is completed in 2025.

  • Investing in Cycling and Active Transport by:
    • Converting all new pop-up bike lanes in the inner city council areas of Maribyrnong, Moonee Valley, Moreland, Melbourne, Darebin, Yarra, Stonnington and Port Phillip to permanent bike lanes by 2025.
    • Doubling cycling and active transport infrastructure across the state by 2030 - including well connected walking and bike paths in suburban Melbourne and regional Victoria.
  • Ensuring that the Suburban Rail Loop project includes:
    • Strong community engagement at every stage of the process which means active consultation with impacted stakeholders.
    • Local procurement of materials for construction and the creation of local jobs through local manufacturing.
    • The project being powered with renewable energy from Victorian solar and wind farms.
    • Integration of the SRL infrastructure with existing public transport including trams, buses, and trains as well as with major community hubs.


With a rich solar and wind resource and proactive policies in place, Victoria’s renewable energy rollout is creating thousands of jobs, attracting investment to the state, and delivering cheaper power prices and emissions cuts.

Continuing this trend is essential to revitalise regional economies, boost the manufacturing sector, and the state’s ability to meet its climate goals.

Friends of the Earth call for all political parties to commit to:

  • The Victorian Renewable Energy (Jobs & Investment) Act (2017).
  • Swift delivery of existing Victorian Renewable Energy Targets of 40 percent by 2025 and 50 percent by 2030.
  • Adopting a Victorian Renewable Energy Target of 100 percent by 2030. 
  • Make Victoria the national leader in offshore wind by securing the first operating project. This can be accomplished by developing an industry plan for offshore wind and establishing a "carve out" for the technology in the Victorian Renewable Energy Target.
  • Establishing a Community Energy Target of 100MW by 2025. This target can be delivered with a ‘Community Energy Incentive’, funding for Community Power Hubs out to 2025, and development grants for midscale projects in the range of 1-10MW. 
  • Make all new housing all-electric and encourage the retro-fitting of all-electric appliances in existing homes (i.e: induction cooktops, heat pumps, etc).
  • Install stationary batteries at all suburban substations to “soak up” excess solar generation during the day for use during the evening peak. This is more efficient than expecting individual solar households to do so and avoids curtailing of solar from households. This also takes the load off the transmission infrastructure and stabilises the grid.



Victoria’s coal-burning power plants are becoming increasingly unreliable and expensive to operate. Engie’s swift closure of the Hazelwood coal power plant disrupted the community and demonstrated the need for economic diversification in the region. 

Friends of the Earth call for all political parties to commit to:

  • A just transition to coordinate closure of coal fired power stations and ensure the Latrobe Valley and wider Gippsland region are supported with access to sustainable job opportunities, community and economic development.
  • Continue funding for the Latrobe Valley Authority to diversify the region’s economy and build resilience to coal power plant closures. 
  • Support projects in the Latrobe Valley that help diversify energy generation (e.g. the Delburn Wind Farm).


Photo: John CarneyCommunity opposition to fossil gas development is re-emerging in the wake of the decision to lift the moratorium on onshore conventional gas development from 1 July 2021 and recent approvals of offshore gas exploration in Victoria’s coastal waters.

The following recommendations emerged from a joint statement developed by a network of groups seeking to get Victoria off gas.

Friends of the Earth call for all political parties to commit to:

  • The right of Traditional Custodians to free, prior and informed consent regarding gas exploration and development on Country and Sea Country.
  • Accept the evidence that Victoria can rapidly move away from gas while maintaining reliable and affordable energy supply to households and businesses.
  • Rule out opening new acreages for gas exploration and development, to remain consistent with the International Energy Agency’s Roadmap in order to meet net zero emissions by 2050.
  • Adopt policies that use remaining supply in active gas wells in the Bass Strait prudently, and end exports to Queensland, so that gas imports are not needed. The government should establish gas reserves, manage storage, and demand-response interventions to prevent shortfall as we move away from gas to clean technologies.
  • Reject proposals for new gas infrastructure such as import terminals and pipeline upgrades. Community safety and international LNG safety industry best practice regulations must take precedence when considering gas infrastructure developments  at all times.
  • Rule out adding hydrogen in the pipelines for domestic and commercial use. If hydrogen is to be used for other purposes such as industry or heavy transport it must only be hydrogen generated entirely by renewable energy.
  • Commit to eliminating gas as soon as possible and adopt a minimum target to halve Victorian gas use by 2030. 
  • Electrify everything that can be electrified to cut emissions, ensure safe and livable homes, save households money, and create jobs and competitive industries. 
  • Cease gas connections to new housing developments immediately.
  • Work with local councils to mandate that new homes are all-electric.
  • Increase education for the community, tradespeople, and industry regarding electrifying homes and improving energy efficiency.
  • Facilitate a rapid reduction in domestic and commercial gas use, especially for the top 20 percent of household users, so that peak demand in winter is no higher than 1,000 terajoules per day.
  • Facilitate a rapid reduction in industrial gas use by requiring industry-wide participation in the Victorian Energy Upgrade program and supporting the adoption of new clean technologies and processes (such as heat pumps).
  • Set in motion immediate preparation for a well planned and amply resourced transition of industry away from gas while ensuring justice for workers.
  • Make eliminating gas a key priority of Victoria’s next Climate Change Strategy, Emissions Reduction Target setting processes, Planning Scheme amendments, planning decisions, and state budget. 


Friends of the Earth notes an upsurge in pro-nuclear advocacy and claims that nuclear energy is a ‘solution’ to combat climate change. 

A Victorian Parliamentary Inquiry concluded in a November 2020 report that nuclear power “is significantly more expensive than other forms of power generation,” that “without subsidisation a nuclear power industry will remain economically unviable in Australia,” and that those promoting nuclear power “have not presented any argument, data or proof in support of their position that cannot be nullified by those arguing against.”

In 2019, a broad coalition of faith, union, environmental, Aboriginal, and public health groups, representing millions of Australians, declared nuclear power has no role in Australia’s energy future and is a dangerous distraction from the pressing climate challenges. Their united statement demonstrates widespread community opposition to nuclear power. 

Friends of the Earth call for all political parties to commit to: 

  • Accept the findings of the Victorian Parliamentary inquiry into nuclear prohibition.
  • Affirm an unequivocal commitment to retain the state’s long-standing nuclear ban.



In 2019, the Labor government committed to cease the logging of native forests in Victoria by 2030, with a ‘phase down’ after 2024 . The state recognises that protecting native forest will boost its capacity to draw carbon emissions out of the atmosphere (Victoria’s Mountain Ash forests store more carbon per hectare than any other studied forests in the world). However, this opportunity could be squandered unless native forest logging is ended much more urgently. The current transition timeline fails to acknowledge that continuing to log for a further 8 years will produce emissions by converting these carbon dense forests into short-lived products like woodchip, packaging, and pallets. Logging results in at least 94% of a forest’s stored carbon ending up in the atmosphere. A maximum of 6% of its carbon remains in sawn timber, for up to 90 years (but typically much shorter). On average, logs suitable to be sawn into timber make up only an average 35% of total logs cut from Victorian native forests. Of this 35%, sawmills convert less than 40% into sawn timber for building and furniture. Offcuts are wood chipped, pulped for cheap short-lived products, made into pallets, or sold as sawdust. 60% of total biomass is left on the forest floor. Now is the time to protect what’s left of our intact native forests and allow them to reach their globally significant carbon storage potential.

If logging continues on the current timeline, there will also be very little healthy forest left that would be suitable for endangered species habitat. Even before the devastating bushfire disaster of 2019/20, logging until 2030 was irreconcilable with functional, biodiverse forest ecosystems and the survival of many threatened and endangered species. Scientists had already identified that ecosystems like Mountain Ash were on the brink of collapse. The Black Summer bushfires then burnt more than 1.25 million hectares of forest across the three most heavily impacted Forest Management Areas. The government must reassess its exit plan based on science and the impact of climate-fuelled bushfires on forest ecosystems and wildlife.

The 2030 exit is also unrealistic for workers in the industry, due to a lack of available wood supply and disruption caused by bushfire. The government is leaving forest industry workers and regional communities vulnerable to further insecurity by delaying the exit and by failing to account for the increased risk of bushfires in the years leading up to 2030. Regional people will be the most vulnerable to climate impacts this decade: at risk from bushfires, drought, food shortages, and economic instability. By failing to transition more immediately, the government is jeopardising the wellbeing of regional communities.

A recent report, After the Logging, found that 1 in 3 logged areas are being converted to weed-infested paddocks, which may never recover. Logging is removing and fragmenting forests across Victoria and instead replacing them with young, fire-prone, single age stands of eucalypts, or barren areas dominated by weeds. By the time the industry begins to wind down in 2024, entire landscapes will have been sacrificed. Continuing to log will compromise the long-term wellbeing of surrounding regional communities by degrading forest values and destroying tourism opportunities. It will also continue to destroy First Nations’ cultural inheritance and Victoria’s unique natural heritage.

Affected regional communities, the wider Victorian community,  and our global community depend on these carbon-dense forests for survival. These forests produce our clean air and drinking water and they are our best chance at mitigating climate disaster. Ending logging also protects communities from increased bushfire severity. Unless logging ends as soon as possible, Victoria won't have healthy forests to perform these invaluable functions, at a time when the people and creatures of this earth need them the most. In the midst of a climate and ecological crisis and in a decade of economic transition, continuing with native forest logging endangers all Victorians.


Friends of the Earth calls for all political parties to commit to:

  • An immediate moratorium on all native forest logging, while forest management is handed over to Traditional Owners. Place an immediate, permanent ban on all industrial native forest logging and terminate the Forests (Wood Pulp Agreement) Act 1996.
  • Collapse VicForests and rapidly transition to Traditional Owners’ management of Country, observing both the Sovereigns On Forests Statement 2019 and the Cultural Landscapes Strategy 2021. Provide increased funding for Traditional Owners to self-determine the management of their Country and increase funding for research, field work, and co-capacity roles (through land management agencies such as Parks Victoria) in order to hand back decision making power to Traditional Custodians as soon as possible. Engage in extensive, respectful and meaningful dialogue about the free, prior and informed consent of Traditional Owners with signatories of the Sovereigns On Forests Statement 2019, to ensure the participation of a broad range of Traditional Owner voices. Ending the logging of Bush Country and returning ‘public forests’ to First Nations people for their cultural and economic benefit should be a necessary part of the Treaty process. 
  • Continue to support all affected regions outlined in the Victorian Forestry Plan and drastically increase funds for a rapid transition and locally-generated solutions that build community resilience to climate impacts this decade. Fund guaranteed jobs in small-scale farm forestry, emergency resilience (e.g. fire prevention), roading maintenance, regenerative agriculture, bush restoration, and natural resource management for forestry workers and contractors. 
  • Support private land use diversification in affected regions to create local jobs in regenerative farming and conservation, in order to support affected communities more broadly. This could also provide housing for young people in affected regions, who would continue to diversify regional economies in an ongoing way. Land diversification to create regenerative agriculture and bush regeneration jobs would also boost the agricultural sector, build food security to counter climate impacts in regional communities, and draw-down carbon. This could involve pairing existing land owners with young farmers and conservationists or establishing community land trusts.

  • Increase resources for landscape-scale ecosystem restoration and reforestation programs on public land and biodiversity restoration on private lands across Victoria, to combat the climate and biodiversity crises and to create secure, dignified work in regional areas. Investigate global efforts spurred by the UN’s ‘30 by 30’ conservation goal.

  • Base the exit plan out of logging on the most recent, robust, peer reviewed research of experts and scientists currently studying these ecosystems. Ensure traditional knowledge is embedded cohesively in landscape management based on current science. 
  • Support the emergence of ethical, localised timber markets through initiatives such as CERES Fairwood. Source wood through an extensive network of ecologically sound, small-scale farm forestry in transitioning regions, recycled timber, and collected timber (all operations must be vigilant about biodiversity impacts and retain habitat on farms and in urban environments). This would provide sovereign capability and resource security in the timber market and prevent reliance on imports. Produce timber on a needs basis, within a truly sustainable domestic market. Encourage and support emerging sustainable housing materials such as hemp, natural building, units for modular housing, insulation etc. to reduce demand for timber. 
  • 84% of logs cut from native forest are used in short-lived and often disposable pulp products and pallets. Support the viability of non-timber sources of fibre and recycled resources (like recycled plastic programs) for all non-timber products. 
  • Victoria grows 3.9 million tonnes of eucalypt pulp logs to make paper and wood chips every year. But we export 2.9 million tonnes – three-quarters of the pulp logs produced – from Victoria to Japan and China. Terminate export contracts and use existing plantations and small-scale farm forestry to ensure resource security and source domestic demand for both timber and pulp. 
  • Acknowledge the new context we are in, post the 2019/2020 bushfires. Do not log any identified habitat remaining in Victoria for each threatened species significantly affected by the 2019–20 bushfires and observe the recommendations of the After the Fires 2021 report. Observe and adopt recommendations of the After the Logging 2021report (in regards to logging regeneration failure) and the An Icon At Risk 2021 report, especially regarding the logging and restoration of ash forests.
  • Consult with grassroots community groups protecting forests around the state, including the Victorian Forest Alliance. 



Victoria’s endangered and threatened species are facing unprecedented pressure from habitat destruction and intensifying climate impacts. Proactive steps are needed from the state government to give important species the best chance of survival.

Friends of the Earth call for all political parties to commit to: 

  • Revisiting the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 to include provisions for greater protection of populations of animals within a species that are genetically significant, e.g: the Strzelecki Koala.
  • Adopting policies that protect and treat koala populations in South Gippsland and the Strzelecki Ranges as a separate management unit, in relation to translocated koala populations elsewhere in Victoria. This also needs to be adopted in a new Victorian Koala Management Plan.
  • Advocating for the listing of the Strzelecki/South Gippsland koala under the Federal Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.
  • Stronger, enriched, and reflective database within the Victorian Biodiversity Atlas mapping a clearer picture of Victoria's flora and fauna species. Greater integrity is needed within the VBA as this resource often guides decision-making bodies. There should be a priority and greater emphasis on threatened and endangered species.


The climate-fuelled bushfires of 2019-20 tested Victoria’s ability to defend communities and the places we love from catastrophic fires. Governments must ramp up firefighting capacity to match the growing risk that comes with a hotter planet.

Friends of the Earth calls for all political parties to commit to:

  • Provide sufficient funding for the state’s firefighting capacity (via Forest Fire Management Victoria) to ensure all fire sensitive vegetation communities - rainforest, peatland, snow gums and alpine ash, and mountain ash communities can be protected from wildfire.
  • Carry out an assessment of fire-sensitive communities as outlined above to determine whether specific intervention is required to avoid ecological collapse of the communities, as has been done in the case of the alpine ash aerial seeding program.
  • Back the Royal Commission into Natural Disaster recommendation that the federal government establish a publicly owned air fleet to fight fires.



There is a critical need for governments to support communities as we confront challenges of economic transition, recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic, and climate upheaval. The time has come for governments to take new approaches to maintain peoples’ dignity and wellbeing in a time of instability, keep Victorians above the poverty line, and remove political and practical barriers to transitioning.

Friends of the Earth call for all political parties to commit to:

  • Design and roll out a guaranteed Universal Basic Income scheme to materially assist all Victorians.



  • Let us know what you think about this policy platform... Are there key policies you would like us to add?... Email your ideas and feedback to campaigns coordinator, Cam Walker: [email protected]
  • Sign up to our monthly email newsletter for campaign updates and events. 
  • Volunteer with a Friends of the Earth campaign collective that matches your skills and interests.
  • Become a Friends of the Earth Melbourne member to keep the grassroots network strong. 
  • Organise with us and champion your own grassroots campaign.





Prepared by Friends of the Earth Melbourne campaigners - 26 November 2021

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